Mania and hypomania both involve periods when the individual feels excited or experiences an energized mood. They differ in how severe these mood changes are:
Mania goes beyond normal mood and energy changes. The symptoms of mania are so intense that they can affect a person's relationships, job, or well-being. Having mania does not always mean that the person feels happy. While mania can cause a feeling of euphoria, it can also cause extreme irritability. Symptoms of mania can include:
Hypomania is a milder form of mania. People who have bipolar disorder II have hypomania. If a full manic episode occurs, a diagnosis of bipolar disorder I is usually more appropriate. Symptoms of hypomania may include:
Hypomani and mania share many symptoms. The distinguishing factor is the severity of these symptoms. Both mania and hypomania involve mood and behavior changes beyond normal, everyday changes. Mania is so severe that a person cannot carry on with their usual activities. In more extreme cases, they may need immediate hospital care. A person with hypomania may be able to carry on as usual. Family and friends may notice that the individual is acting differently even if the person does not realize it is happening. However, they should still seek medical help to prevent their symptoms from worsening. Although hypomania is not as severe as mania, it can also be dangerous and have negative effects on a person's overall well-being. One study found that people were more likely to engage in risk behavior during hypomanic episodes. This includes spending large amounts of money, using alcohol or drugs excessively, dangerous driving, or engaging in risky, sexual behavior. People experiencing mania but not hypomania may also experience delusions, hallucinations, or manic stupor. If a person doesn't receive effective treatment for hypomania, they may be at risk of it developing into mania, although this is not always the case.
The symptoms of both mania and hypomania involve feeling very happy, on an emotional high, and feeling more energetic and creative. In some cases, an episode of mania or hypomania can be mixed with one of depression. Specialists call this a mixed feature episode. When this mix happens, a person may feel energized while also feeling depressed, hopeless, or empty. Certain life events or activities can cause an episode of mania or hypomania. These episodes are called triggers. A small-scale study on a group of young people who had bipolar disorder found that triggers for mania and hypomania included:
People often receive conflicting information about how to achieve self confidence. Confidence seems to have an amorphous quality, which makes the concept difficult to grasp and even more challenging to teach. But rest assured that it can be done; developing confidence is learnable and actionable. Confidence develops when you have a deep sense that you can handle the emotional outcome of whatever you face or pursue. Another way to put it is that confidence is a felt sense of a "can do" attitude. Throughout years of experience we have been able to identify 5 daily actions you can take to boost your confidence. Trusting that you are emotionally strong is the foundation, followed by speaking, taking action, ending self-criticism, and absorbing compliments.
1. The first step is to allow yourself to be aware of, experience, and move through the full range of your feelings both pleasant and unpleasant. Most of us do well with the pleasant feelings but can be distracted by the unpleasant ones. The key here is that you are choosing awareness, or "knowing what you know", as opposed to avoidance and "trying not to know what you know." In this case, it means dealing with eight unpleasant feelings: sadness, shame, helplessness, frustration, anger, vulnerability, embarrassment, and disappointment. Allowing yourself to move toward pain and deal with the feelings that result from disappointment builds emotional strength. When you choose to be aware of and in touch with the full range of what you experience, it is very centering, grounding, and peaceful, and you feel more true to yourself. This is the start of building confidence.
2. The second step is speaking up or expressing yourself- with discretion and in a positive, kind, and well intentioned manner- by telling the truth about what you experienced. It is saying what you need to say, with whom you wish to speak, at the time you need. Think about how frequently a therapist or people close to you tell you to speak up. There is a good reason why they advise you to do so. When you tell your well-intended truth, you'll find that speaking up gives your confidence a major boost, because it helps you live more authentically.
3. The third step is to take actions that move you towards your goals even if it seems hard to take those risks. With both speaking up and taking action, it is not that you have confidence and then speak or do something; instead, it is through speaking and taking action that you develop confidence.
4. The fourth is to end harsh self-criticism or negative self-talk. This behavior not only fosters doubt but can rob you of the will to pursue your goals. Despite some people's belief that being mean to themselves help to motivate them, hurting yourself with thoughts and words is profoundly damaging. When you are tempted to belittle yourself, use you awareness of this temptation as a signal that something harder to know or bear is trying to make itself known to you. Then, ask yourself: What is difficult for me to know or bear? Any insights that emerge can help guide your future actions.
5. Though many of us are inclined to dismiss them, the fifth step is to accept the genuine compliments you receive. Compliments act as a mirror and reflection of yourself. As you let yourself take them in, they can help you settle into yourself, perhaps allowing you to see that you are already the person you want to become.
Getting through life is an art form, and most of the time what we are trying to create is not gallery worthy, but there are many ways to upgrade your existence. Here are a few tips that will help:
1. Give up lying. The truth always comes out, and any ill-gotten gains will quickly disappear. People you have tried to hurt are living better lives, and the act you lied about probably didn't make a bit of difference in the big picture of your life.
2. Love is the only thing worth holding on to. Many things can get in the way, like greed, temptation, aging, and illness. But love will make you whole, and nothing else ever will in the same way. No, unfortunately, it doesn't work for everyone, but give it another try( or get a dog).
3. Release negative memories and thoughts. Tell yourself out loud that you don't want to think about this anymore (best to do this while you are alone). Sometimes just hearing your thought spoken out loud can make a huge difference. Give it a try!
4. Give yourself a break. Being overly hard on yourself when you have made a mistake just makes matters worse, because then the mistake takes over your thoughts for the next while. Life is a learning process- please keep that in mind.
5. Know that if your basic necessities are covered, making money should never be the most important thing. If making more money is your main drive, you will hurt yourself and other's in the long run. You will also miss out on a lot of life. You have to seriously ask yourself, "How much is enough?" and learn to be happy with what you have.
6. Recognize that if you enjoy conflict, there is something unhealed inside you. No matter how you express your ire, be it by passive-aggressive behavior, by texting nasty things, or by being a bully, it's toxic for you as well. This is usually a strong indication that you may need some counseling.
7. Find one thing during the day to look forward to (and it cannot be going to bed). Any moment of pleasure will do; you can't live a life with zero happiness, but you may feel you are unless you begin to embrace some of the simple things we tend to take for granted. Such as cooking a meal, exercising, or going out with friends.
8. Take at least one day off a week. And don't bring the office home with you. That million-dollar deal doesn't require your constant attention and neither does the broken dishwasher. Pace yourself and just be. If you have to be doing something constantly, it could be a sign that you are fighting some unhappiness and are avoiding thinking about it.
9. Listen to some music every day. Many people enjoy listening to music in the car. These days, technology has given us much more access to it.
10. Make time for yourself to relax for ten minutes, several times a day. These mini-meditations, or just breathers, actually give you more energy and make life a little easier to take. Many of us have long work days and some days that aren't that easy. A little relaxation can make a huge difference in our lives.
Don't try all of these at once, but if you can integrate one positive behavioral change a week into your lifestyle, things will get nicer very quickly.
Like all emotions, anxiety is healthy, and we're all prone to feeling it sometimes. Anxiety can be a debilitating problem, though, when the stress you feel is no longer in proportion to the situation. An upcoming test, job interview, or first date may make you feel anxious, and that's healthy. But, if you feel symptoms of anxiety absent any apparent reason or everyday things make you anxious - leaving your home, for example- it may be time to see a mental health professional. To know if your anxiety is unmanageable, you have to know the symptoms.
1. Physical Symptoms
The physical symptoms of anxiety may include upset stomach, excessive sweating, headache, rapid heartbeat, and trouble breathing. If you get a stomach ache every time someone invite you out to a social event; you sweat through your shirt whenever you leave the house, even in the middle of winter; or you feel like your heart is beating so fast it might burst when talking to a stranger on the phone, you may be unhealthily anxious. If your body regularly reacts to everyday stressors the way a cavemen would if a lion chased him, your anxiety is no longer healthy.
2. Cognitive Symptoms
Memory issues, trouble concentrating, and insomnia are also symptoms of an anxiety problem. If you can't fall asleep, or you wake up repeatedly throughout the night, because you can't stop thinking about things that will stress you out, anxiousness is ruling over you. The same goes for it if you can't focus on work, or sit through a movie, or read a book, or if you seem to be continually forgetting things that happened recently. When you're severely anxious about something, even if the thing is "irrational", it can be hard to function normally.
3. Procrastination & Avoidance
Whether its procrastinating about the thing that triggers your anxiety - like putting off an errand or not reading an important email until 'you're ready to deal with it'- or avoiding doing just about everything, excessive procrastination and avoidance are two signs of an anxiety issue. We all put off starting unpleasant or difficult tasks sometimes, but when you spend more time avoiding them than doing them, it may be time to seek outside help.
4. Overthinking & Constant Worrying
If worrying keeps you from functioning or your overthinking so much you can't focus on important work or sleep at night, you may have an anxiety problem. Your mind races, you loose track of your surroundings, and you're so caught up in a storm of stressful thoughts that you miss your freeway exit. Anxiety tips over from healthy to unhealthy when it disrupts your life. If a recent health diagnosis has you worried, that's totally normal. If you're afraid that you're dying every time you sneeze, that's not.
5. Feeling Agitated & Restless
If you feel on edge, can't stop moving, and you're quick to anger, you may be anxious. Anger can be a way to shield you from stressful thoughts. By raging at someone else, you can blame your anxious feelings on an outside force. And if you're always moving, you don't have time to ruminate on anxious thoughts. But neither response is helpful or healthy in the long term. When you feel agitated and restless more often than not, when you can't stop moving and get easily annoyed or are prone to snap at people, you may have a serious problem with anxiety.
6. Panic Attacks
Often times people mistake a panic attack for a heart attack. Tightness in your chest, rapid heart beat, sweating and shaking, shortness of breath, and upset stomach can easily be mistaken for a heart attack. It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack so that you don't dismiss one by thinking it is a panic attack or do the opposite and call 911 when you should call a psychologist. Frequent panic attacks are a sign you might have a panic disorder. To differentiate between healthy and unhealthy anxiety, ask yourself: Is this manageable? If your anxiety keeps you from sleeping, working, social interactions, or errands, you might want to talk to a therapist about that. If you feel anxious more than half of the week for six months or longer, it's probably time to get help.
Whether you're single or in a relationship, Valentine's Day is a good time to think about stepping-up your love life and sharpening the skills that keep love alive. Improving your social life by opening yourself up to more people and more experiences is a great first step toward finding the love of your life or bringing more fun and excitement into your existing relationship.
1. Define What You Want
To get what you want, it helps to know what you want, and that's as true of love as it is anything else. Remember, it's about what you want, not about societal expectations. "We get further and further away from happiness when we look for the things we think we 'should' go after instead of the things that are core to our unique personalities." Start by identifying your needs when it comes to romance and establishing your relationship goals. What do you want to give and what do you want to get out of a partnership? When you have a firm grip on what you want, you can look realistically at your own behavior patterns to see if they are helping or hurting your search for lasting love, and take steps to make changes, if necessary.
2. Use Your Loneliness
While chronic loneliness isn't healthy and can contribute to depression, feeling lonely from time to time is normal, whether you're in a romantic relationship or not. And feeling emotionally disconnected from people doesn't have to be a negative if you use those lonely feelings as motivations to make necessary changes that will move your life in more positive directions. "Finding an enduring partnership takes effort. You don't want to settle for a series of casual relationships if what you really want is something long-lasting." Start by paying more attention to relationships you already have and reconnecting with people you have lost touch with over time. Make new connections by joining clubs and special interest groups or volunteering. You never know how you'll meet someone new, but you'll only meet them if you get yourself out there.
3. Balance Your Love Budget
While generosity is normally considered a positive trait, you may be sending the wrong message to a current or potential mate of extravagant spending on dinners and gifts. In fact, you might make a better impression by displaying more of an inclination to save money because it shows you are able to exercise self-control and are likely to accumulate greater financial resources over time. "But be careful not to appear too restrictive or too controlling when it comes to your finances." That could lead someone to believe you're not fun and won't bring much in the way of excitement to the relationship.
4. Start Talking
If and how couples communicate, along with individual willingness to change, determines whether or not problems can be resolved and the quality of a relationship maintained. Some problems, especially minor issues, are best resolved with a cooperative and affectionate approach that doesn't put anyone on the defense.
Lead a happier, healthier life we these calming strategies. You can read all the anti-anxiety advice in the world, but none of this matters unless you take action. To feel more relaxed, to sleep soundly at night, and to put energy into what matters, you have to stop wasting time on tasks that don't matter. By the end of this article, your life could become infinitely more productive and Zen-like. Your part is to commit to 15-60 minutes per day and tackle a few of the following 22 anxiety busters below. The more you commit, the better you'll feel. You're probably familiar with some of these anxiety strategies. But if you experience racing thoughts, tightening in your chest, and shortness of breath, you haven't done all of them.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is probably the most common anxiety disorder, affecting 5-6% of the population. It is characterized by chronic worry about all sorts of life problems and circumstances. It will differ from normal worrying through the intensity, frequency, and perceived lack of control over the worry thoughts. There might be a biological basis to GAD where some people are more likely to over-respond to life's stresses; and studies of families show their is a chance of some genetic influence.
Social Anxiety Disorder, or Social Phobia, is an overwhelming fear of social situations and is the most common anxiety disorder. It is much more than shyness and can be intense fear over things such as shopping or speaking on the phone. It is normal to feel worry in some social situations, but a person suffering from Social Anxiety Disorder will worry excessively before, during, and after the event. This type of phobia can have a disruptive or disabling impact on a person's life, affecting their self esteem, confidence, and ability to develop relationships with others.
Panic Disorder is where a person has recurring and regular panic attacks, often with no clear reason. For those who suffer from panic disorder, feelings of anxiety, stress and panic can occur regularly and at any time. Panic attack symptoms are feelings of nausea, sweating, trembling, and palpitations. In the UK, panic disorder affects about two in 100 people, and it is roughly twice as common in women than it is in men.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder is caused by very stressful, frightening, or distressing events. Someone suffering from PTSD will often experience flash backs and nightmares of the event, as well as feelings of isolation and guilt. They may have a problem sleeping, and find concentrating difficult, these symptoms are often severe and will have a significant impact on the person's daily life.
Unlike clinical depression, adjustment disorder is often triggered by a significant change in a person's life. Treatment is important, here is what you need to know. Depression, of course, is not a rarity. The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that in 2016, 6.7% of adults in the US- 16.2million!- endured at least one major depressive episode in a year. Obviously, it feels miserable to feel miserable whether it's a temporary or chronic condition. But it is essential to know what you are dealing with so you can get the proper treatment as quickly as possible. Major depressive disorder is diagnosed when you have experienced five or more of the following symptoms over a two-week period that impact your ability to function day to day:
If you under go A life changing trauma, do this:
Your son may be doing well in school and get along with others, but be a bit withdrawn and have odd likes and dislikes. Then you might notice that his grades are slipping. He might lost interest in playing sports or give up his guitar and stop seeing the friends he used to jam with. His sleep habits might change-he might be unable to fall asleep or wake to early. Next, he might tell you for a few hours he heard voices of people who weren't there, or thought that he was being trailed by a spy. These strange voices or perceptions may go quickly and never turn into a lasting mental illness. However, these early signs of schizophrenia shouldn't be ignored. Your son needs a professional evaluation. Look for a psychiatrist who has experience with teens and psychosis. There are steps you can take to delay schizophrenia even if it is bound to come, writes Herbert Meltzer, a psychiatrist and professor at Northwestern University. If mental illness runs in the family, consider a candid conversation with your children: They need to know that experimenting with drugs is more dangerous for them than for other people. Any grandparent, parent, or sibling with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder means that they may have genes that put them at risk of psychosis. Marijuana may seem like a low-risk drug, but not for them- it could bring on the illness earlier. "Special K" (ketamine), cocaine, and methamphetamine are also dangerous. If your child has been diagnosed with ADHD and is taking Ritalin or amphetamines, the drugs may have brought on the voices and paranoia. Unusual stress like bullying could also trigger an underlying vulnerability. As a parent, you can work with your child and her school to limit the stress. If your household has become stressful, it might even be better for your child to live somewhere else, Meltzer noted. During the evaluation, your child's doctor should rule out contributions from other illnesses. Now is also the time to gather information from relatives about the course of their illness and treatment. Their history may be clues to what will work best for your child. The genes of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia overlap. If one sibling has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, other siblings are more likely to develop schizophrenia then bipolar disorder. If one child is showing early symptoms of schizophrenia, it's reasonable for his siblings to be concerned about themselves and you can help by having them evaluated as well. If a mother has bipolar disorder disease, a child with early symptoms could develop schizophrenia rather than bipolar disorder. It is important for anyone diagnosed with schizophrenia to undergo repeated tests for working memory, word memory, and speed of processing information, attention, and social understanding. A steady decline in even on area is a danger sign and treatment drugs can make a difference. The drugs Lurasidone, Olanzapine, and Risperidone may help improve performance. Look for signs of motor side effects for medication. Tardive dyskinesia- involuntary movements of the lip, tongue, and cheeks- has been linked to cognitive impairment. It's easy for people to forget to take medication. Consider long acting injectable medications that work from two weeks to three months. Five percent of patients with schizophrenia die from suicide, and many more try. Although clozapine has many side-effects, they can be minimized and the drug lowers suicide risk. Family and group therapy may be more helpful than individual therapy. The early signs of schizophrenia appear earlier in boys, usually between ages 16 and 25. The average age of onset is 18 in men and 25 in women. The later the onset, the better chance of a full life and quick action can make all the difference.